Big Data

A broad term for data sets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate. Challenges associated with big data include; analysis, capture, data curation, search, sharing, storage, transfer, visualization, querying and information privacy

(Wikipedia, n.d.-a)

Communication Strategy

A document that expresses the goals and methods of an organization’s outreach activities, including what an organization wishes to share with the public and whom the organization is trying to reach. Generally presented as an internal document, a communications strategy should serve as a guide for any media and public relations activities in which the organization is engaged

(wikiHow, n.d.)

Converging Technologies

Converging technology refers to taking two or more technological products that were previously used separately for different tasks, and merging them to make one, ultimate product.

Developed Country

A country that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living.

(Wikipedia, n.d.-c)

Developing Country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

(Wikipedia, n.d.-c)

Digital Citizen

A digital citizen is a person who uses the Internet regularly and effectively. In qualifying as a digital citizen, a person generally must have extensive skills and knowledge in using the Internet through computers, mobile phones, and web-ready devices to interact with private and public organizations.

(Karen Mossberger, 2007)

Digital Divide

A term that refers to the gap between demographics and regions that have access to modern information and communications technology, and those that do not or have restricted access. This technology can include the telephone, television, personal computers and the Internet.

Digital Preservation

Digital preservation is a formal endeavor to ensure that digital information of continuing value remains accessible and usable.


The online transaction of business, featuring linked computer systems of the vendor, host, and buyer. Electronic transactions involve the transfer of ownership or rights to use a good or service

(Laudon, 2009)


The public sector’s use of information and communication technologies (ICT) with the aim of improving information and service delivery, encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and making government more accountable, transparent and effective.

(UNESCO, 2011a)


Learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology (ICT). It can cover a spectrum of activities from the use of technology to support learning as part of a ‘blended’ approach (a combination of traditional and e-learning approaches), to learning that is delivered entirely online. Whatever the technology, however, learning is the vital element.

(Media, n.d.)


A set of practical measures designed to ensure that Information Technology is developed, delivered and used in a way that is environmentally friendly, sustainable and energy efficient.

(IT, n.d.)


Information and communications technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that encompasses many technologies and devices: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing, e-mails, streaming – digital distribution of multimedia through a network of computers, social media, e-learning platforms, and many others.

Incubation Centres

A business support process that accelerates the successful development of start-up and fledgling companies by providing entrepreneurs with an array of targeted resources and services. A business incubator‘s main goal is to produce successful firms that will leave the program financially viable and freestanding. Incubator graduates have the potential to create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, commercialize new technologies, and strengthen local and national economies (National Business Incubation Association).

(National Business Incubation Association)


Facts provided or learned about something or someone. Its common synonyms are details, particulars, facts, figures, statistics, data, etc

Information for all

Information literate communities, where “people in all walks of life are empowered to seek, evaluate, use, and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals.”

Information Society

A society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information with the support of information and communication technologies is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity.

(, n.d.)


A new idea which, when implemented, leads to a more effective device or process. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs.

Intellectual Property Rights

Creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce.

(WIPO, n.d.)


The global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing.

(Wikipedia, 2016e)


Short for Internet Service Provider, it refers to a company that provides Internet services, including personal and business access to the Internet.


A familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

(Wikipedia, 2016h)

Knowledge Based Economy (KBE)

An economy which is ‘directly based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information’ (OECD 1996). The Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) Economic Committee extended this idea to state that in a knowledge based economy, ‘the production, distribution and use of knowledge is the main driver of growth, wealth creation and employment across all industries’.

(“Towards knowledge-based economies in APEC,” 2000)

Knowledge economy

The complex and all-encompassing change leading – though at a different pace in different parts of the world – to the emergence of the “knowledge society” and the “knowledge based economy.

Knowledge Society

A society based on the creation, dissemination and utilization of information and knowledge. It is a society with an economy in which knowledge is acquired, created, disseminated and applied to enhance economic and social development.

(GESCI, 2012)

Knowledge society

A society based on the creation, dissemination and utilization of information and knowledge. It is a society with an economy in which knowledge is acquired, created, disseminated and applied to enhance economic and social development (GESCI, 2012).

knowledge-driven economy

See Knowledge economy.

Logical Framework

A project design methodology which helps to clarify objectives of any project, program, or system. It aids in the identification of the expected causal links—the “programme logic”—in the following results chain: inputs, processes, outputs (including coverage or “reach” across beneficiary groups), outcomes, and impact. It leads to the identification of performance indicators at each stage in this chain, as well as risks which might impede the attainment of the objectives. The LogFrame is also a vehicle for engaging partners in clarifying objectives and designing activities. During implementation of a project, programme or system, the logical framework (LogFrame) serves as a useful tool to review progress and take corrective action.

(UNESCO, 2011b).

Network society 

A society where the key social structures and activities are organized around electronically processed information networks. The term “Network Society” has been used sometimes as a version of “Information Society (Castells 2000).

Open Data

Data that anyone can access, use or share. When big companies or governments release non-personal data, it enables small businesses, citizens and researchers to develop resources which make crucial improvements to their communities.

(Institute, 2016)

Public Policies

The principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. Public Policies are the execution framework under which government and non-government organizations work to resolve or rectify the social, economic or political issues of a society, or to attain new goals.

(Wikipedia, 2016l)

Public Policies for Knowledge Society

The execution framework under which governmental and non-governmental organizations work to resolve or rectify the social, economic or political issues of a society, or to attain new goals. They design objectives to meet and define the roles and responsibilities of various agents in the system and the assignment and distribution of human, technological, and financial resources to resolve the issues.

Quality Assurance

The maintenance of a desired level of quality in a service or product, especially by means of attention to every stage of the process of delivery or production.

(Dictionaries, 2016).

Risk Assessment

Identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.


Those who may be affected by or have an effect on an effort.  They may also include people who have a strong interest in the effort for academic, philosophical, or political reasons, even though they and their families, friends, and associates are not directly affected by it.

Sustainable Development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

(IISD, 2016).


A public place where people can access computers, the Internet, and other digital technologies that enable them to gather information, create, learn, and communicate with others while they develop essential digital skills (Wikipedia). According to Harris et al., telecentres are community resources that offer access to information and communication technologies for inducing development among marginalized population with little hope of otherwise participating in benefits of the information revolution that the developing world is now enjoying.


According to Burt Nanus, a distinguished visionary leadership theorist, a vision is a realistic, credible, attractive future for an organization. A vision must be realistic, so that it is possible; it must be credible so that it is attainable and it must be attractive so that people will work with its leader to help meet this future objective or goal.

(Business Dictionary, 2016).


The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a pair of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis. One of its chief aims was to bridge the so-called global digital divide separating rich countries from poor countries by spreading access to the Internet in the developing world.

(Wikipedia, 2016o)